Il Dialetto Lucano - The Lucanian Dialect

The following was written by Professor Alfonso de Salvio in 1915.  I 
believe he was a professor of Romance Languages at Northwestern 
University.  He was born on July 15, 1873 in Orsara di Puglia [32 
kilometers north of Basilicata].  Unfortunately, the special 
characters do not display correctly on this web page.


     Basilicata is the name of that territorial division of Southern 
Italy which is now known as the province of Potenza and which formed a 
part of the ancient Lucania.  It is bounded  on the north by the 
province of Foggia, on the northeast by the provinces of Bari and 
Lecce, on the east by the province of Cosenza, and on the weat by the 
Mediterranean sea and the provinces of Salerno and Avellino.  It has a 
population of about 512,000 inhabitants and comprises the circondari 
of Lagonegro, Matera, Melfi, and Potenza.  The region is mountainous 
and the population is given largely to agriculture and sheep-
raising.  Although centrally located, the province possesses no 
mercantile towns of any great importance.  Many objects of antiquity 
were discovered in this region: inscriptions, vases, fragments of 
statues, medallions, and two bronze tables, known as the Heraclean 
Tables, now in the Naples Museum.
     Linguistically, the dialect of this province belongs to the 
Neapolitan group.  When we compare it with Neapolitan, we find that 
the differences in accent and general modulation of the voice are 
striking, but phonetically the two have much in common.
     A peculiar phenomenon in this dialect is the tendency for 

accented as well as pretonic a to become ua: nuase, cuane, cuanniliere 
< Italian naso, cane, candeliere.  The tonic vowels are not so 
prolonged as in Neapolitan, and therefore post-tonic vowels are less 
liable to weaken.  Open e when not dipthongized gives close e: prete, 
pedde, freve < Italian pietra, pelle, febbre; in Neapolitan it re-

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               789

mains.  Pretonic initial vowels show less tendency to disappear than 
in Neapolitan.  Pretonic e not initial becomes i: riceve, nipote < 
Italian ricevere, nipote; in Neapolitan it remains when not in hiatus.  
Pretonic ĭ non-initial remains: vinnette, nimique < Italian 
vendetta, nemico; in Neapolitan it becomes e: letecare < Italian 
leticare.  Final vowels have become much more indistinct than in 
Neapolitan.  The confusion between b and v is less frequent than in 
Neapolitan; the v never becomes a pure bilabial.  Intervocalic d never 
weakens to r as in Neapolitan.  In the latter, initial g before e and 
i develops as in Tuscan, but in this dialect it gives š: scienere, 
scelà < Italian genero, gelare.  We find also a w sound as in English 
instead of the Tuscan gu: wardà, waie < Italian guardare, guaio.  
Intervocalic l remains, while in Neapolitan it is sometimes confused 
with r.  Intervocalic dy gives sometimes š: osce < hodie, ausce < 
gaudium, a development not found in Neapolitan.  Ll generally gives 
dd, which is altogether foreign  to Neapolitan: cuavadde, capidde < 
Italian cavallo, capello.  In Neapolitan intervocalic mby gives gn: 
cagnare < Italian cambiare; in this dialect it gives ngi: cagnià.  
Unlike Neapolitan, intervocalic by may give at times š: curresce < 
corigiam.  The interrogatives chi and che become in this dialect ci 
and ce, forms not found in Neapolitan.  Cu before a, o, u, becomes qu: 
quiddle, quiste < Italian quello, questo; but in Neapolitan we have 
chillo and chisto.  For Tuscan manco, dico, nemico we have manquo, 
diquo, nimique, a development not found in Neapolitan.
     The tendency for dialects to become Italianized, as well as the 
variation of the same dialect in the towns of the same province, make 
it impossible to undertake a thorough study of the speech of an entire 
region.  I have gathered my material from one town, Corleto Perticara,

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which, being situated in a central location, may be considered to give 
a fair example of the speech of Basilicata.
     The pronunciation is the same as that of Italian, with the 
exception that final vowels are very indistinct and in rapid speech 
are scarcely audible.  This, however, is not true of monosyllables 
like ie,¹ nu, na, cu, etc. < Italian io, uno, una, con.  The dd 
developed from ll is a very difficult sound to pronounce; the tip of 
the tongue must strike the upper gums, producing at the same time a 
slight r sound.
     I am indebted to Prof. Domenico Francolino and Mr. Franklin 
Francolino of Hartford, Conn., both natives of Basilicata, for 
valuable help rendered and for most of the selections given as 





1. Whether in position or not, a generally remains: sabbate < 
sabbatum; balzame < balsamum; mare, funtane.
2. That a often remains in the speech of the majority is due to the 
influence exercised by the study of Italian in the public schools and 
very probably by neighboring dialects.  However, among the more 
unlettered classes and among the older generation one frequently finds 
that the a becomes ua (the u before a and o being pronounced almost 
like English w): suangue < sanguem; puane < panem; cuane < canem; 
nuase < nasum; suacce < sapeo; suai < sapes; piuatte < *plattum.

¹The i is pronounced like English y in yes.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               791

3. -arium gives -are and -iere: scinnare < *jenuarium; caudare <
 caldariam; varviere < *barbarium; cuanniliere < *candelarium.

ǐ, ē

1. Whether in position or not, ǐ, ē give close e unless 
there is a u in the following syllable, in which case they become i: 
verde < viridem; pepe < piper; sete < setam; cere < ceram; cannele < 
candelam; piro < perum; pilo < pilum; tise < tensum.

2. Some words have e in the singular and i in the plural under the 

influence of a following i: paese, paisi; turnese, tirnisi; ermice, 
irmici.  Also e instead of i in discete, descete.
Exceptions: cicere < cicer; vinte < viginti; diebete < debitum; iedde 
< illam; tridice < tredecim; sidice < sedecim; femmina < feminam.


Ĕ diphthongizes to ie when followed by u in the next syllable, 
otherwise it gives a close e: liette < lectum; piette < pectum; fierre 
< ferrum; tiempe < tempus; mierle < *merulum; but prete < petram; 
pedde < pellem; freve < febrem.
Exceptions: iera < erat; iesse < esse; mete < metere (the e being 


Long i remains: file < filum; lime < limam; amique < amicum; but dece 
< dicere.

ǔ, ō

Whether in postion or not, ǔ, ō become close o when not 
followed by u in the next syllable or by i, be it the

792                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

plural ending or resultant from latin s; in the latter case they give 
u: voce < vocem; ora < horam; sole < solem; sopra < super; sotto < 
subtus; vregogne < verecundiam; but surque < sulcum; munnu < mundum; 
curte < curtum; nuie < nos; vuie < vos; raziuni < orationem.
Exceptions: juorne < diurnum; close o became open in Southern 
dialects, whence uo; utre < uterem instead of otre; polve < pulverem, 
in which the o is open instead of close, probably through the analogy 
of words having a tonic open o; grutta < cruptam; spuorc < spurcum; 
favuogne < favonium; sciure < florem.


When followed by u in the next syllable ŏ gives uo, but if 
followed by a, e, o, it gives open o: fuoque < focum; sciuoque < 
jocum; uocchie < oculum; suonne < somnum; puorc < porcum; but omnine < 
hominem; fore < foras; notte < noctem.
Exceptions: nove < novem; osce < hodie; in which the o is close.


Ū remains: suque < sucum; luce < lucem; sciume < flumen; chiù < 
plus.  But rozze < ferruginem.




1. Pretonic a generally remains: cantà, calamare, canzone, pacienza.
2. Occasionally it gives ua: cuappiedde < *cappellum;

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               793

gualantome < It. galantuomo; cuavadde < caballum; cuanniliere < 

3. Often we find forms compounded with ad, the ad being assimilated to 
the following consonant: accussì < ad secum sic; accumenzà < *ad 
cominitiare; arricuordo < It. ricordo; abbulà < ad volare.
4. Often an a is found in place of other vowels: accede < occidere; 
affenne < offendere; canosce < cognoscere; quarera < querelam; addore 
< odorem; cainata < cognatam.


1. When not initial ě becomes i: riceve < recipere; finestre < 
fenestram; cirase < *ceresiam; scinucchie < genuculum; nipote < 
nepotem; simmane < septimanam; stirnutà < sternutare; scinestra < 
genestra; risponne < respondere.
2. In a few cases it falls when initial: limosina < elemosynam; 
cunomia < oeconomiam; pifania < epiphania; rumite < eremita; statie < 
aestatem; ncignà < encœniare.
3. It seldom remains: vregogne < verecundiam; velene < venenum; 
negozio < negotium.
4. In hiatus it becomes i: lione < leonem; criate < *creatum.
5. A few cases of substitution are: luvà < levare; arrore < errorem; 
quarera < querelam; survizio < servitium; rumase < remansum.


1. When not initial ĭ generally remains: vinnette, nimique, 
pifania, vidè, spitale < hospitalem; vilanze < bilancem; diaulo < 
diabolum; linzule < linteolum.
2. when initial it falls: nimique, ndò < in de ubi;

794                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

     nnante < in ante; mbarà < *imparare; nginucchià < ingenuculare.
3. A few cases of substitution are : ancudine < *incudinem; salgile < 


1. Generally ē becomes i: cuanniliere, sicrete, sicure, dinare, 
sciluse < *zelosum, difesa, sinsale < censualem, cipodde < *cepullam, 
riale < regalum.
2. Very seldom it remains: vescique < *vessicam; secce < sepiam.
3. We find substitution in rumite < eremita.


1. Not initial ī remains: vinnegna < vindemiam; fernì < finire; 
figliole < filiolam; piccione < pipionem; cità < civitatem.
2. Initial it falls: mbierno < infernum; nfame < infamem.

ǒ, ō

1. When not initial ǒ, ō give u: cuvierchie, murì, cutugne, 
purtà, cucciare, dulore, curresce, < corrigiam, funtane, cunsulà, 
prumette < *promittere, pruvvene < provenire.
2. They fall when initial: razione, scure, spitale, riloge.
3. Some cases of substitution are: accede < occidere; dimenica < 
dominicam; addore < odorem; cainate < cognatum; aulive < olivam; 
riloge < horologium; affenne < offendere; canosce < cognoscere.

ŭ, ū

1. Ŭ, Ū remain: cuniglie, vuccone, curtiedde < cultellum, 
lucrà, assugà < ex sucare; stirnutà, scutedde < scutellam.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               795

2. A few cases of substitution are: migliera < mulierem; pricine < 
pullicinem; ancina < uncinum.
3. Initial u falls in nu < unum.



A remains: fegate, sabbate, balzame.

ĕ, ē

1. Generally ĕ, ē remain: vipere, cicere, carcere, scienere 
< generum, move < movere.

2. In a few cases they give i: tridice, sidice, voria < boream.


1. Generally ĭ remains: dimenica, irmice < imbricem, debite, 
femmina, miedique < medicum.
2. Cases of substitution are: niespole < *nespilum; cuofene < 
cophinum; sinnaque < syndicum.


1. Generally ŏ remains: wescowe < episcopum; quattuordici < 
quattuordecim; cicorie.
2. Some cases of syncopation are: diaulo < diabolum; arbre < arborum.


1, Ŭ gives o: wedowa < viduam; setola < situlam; pergola.
2. Cases of syncopation are: fibbie < fibulam; uocchie < oculum.
     Most final vowels become so weakened that we have generally 
indicated them by a mute e for both genders.

796                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Whenever an a or an o is found, it means that the sound approaches the 
Italian a or or, but they are still somewhat obscured in 
pronunciation.  The u found in monosyllables is pronounced as in 
Italian.  A and o are the results of Latin -am and um; only in 
monosyllables does the u remain.




1. In most cases b gives a denti-labial v: vasce, varwa, voria, 
vammace, vosco, vocca (Italian basso, barba, boria, bambagia, bosco, 
2. In a smaller number of words it remains: bedde, benedice, balzame.


Initial f remains: fiche, fatique, fierre, firnì (Italian fico, 
fatica, ferro, finire).


1. Generally v remains: vinnette, vence, vessique, venne (Italian 

vendetta, vincere, vescica, vendere).
2. Very rarely it gives b: bo', bene, bota (Italian vuole, viene, 
volta); but vo', vene, and vota are also found.


P remains: puane, piro, pilo, pede (Italian pane, pero, pelo, piede).


D remains: dimenica, debite, duppie, duce (Italian domenica, debito, 
doppio, dolce).

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               797


T remains: tele, titte, tise, tesse, tuorte (Italian tela, tetto, 
teso, tessere, torto).


1. Generally l remains: lime, liette, luoque, lione (Italian lima, 
letto, luogo, leone).
2. The articles lu and la become ru and ra after the proposition a.

M, N

M, N remains: mitte, mierle, move, nide, nora, nimique.


R remains: riggine, riceve, ruzze, russe.


S remains: suangue, sicrete, surde, sive (Italian sangue, segreto, 
sordo, sevo).


1. Before a, o, u, initial c gives k: cuavadde, caudare, cuvierchie, 
2. Before e, i, it gives č: cinc, ceste, cera, cedde, cicere.
3. It becomes qu in quiste < eccum istum; quidde < eccum illum; 
quaglie < coagulum.
4. At times we find a g instead of a k: gatte < cattum; gamma < 
cambam; govite < cubitum.


1. Initial g before a, o, u, generally remains: gode < gaudere: 
gaddine < gallinam; gunnedde < gunna.
2. Before e, i, initial g gives š: scienere < generum; scinestra < 
genestam; scinucchie < genuculum; scelà < gelare.

798                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO


W gives a sound like the English w: wardà < *warda; warnì < warnjan; 
waie < wai.


Initial z before e becomes š: sciluse < *zelosum.


DE, DI becomes j: jinte < de intro; journe < diurnum; diaulo is a 
learned form.


J becomes š: scinnare < *jenuarium; sciuoque < jocum; sciunque < 




Groups endling in l

BL gives j: jastemà < blasphemare; janque < blank.
CL gives chi: chiuove < clavum; chiamà < clamare; chiave < clavem.
FL gives fi, j, š: fiore < florem; jate < flatum; jume and sciume < 
flumen; scioccà < *floccare.
GL gives j: jacce < *glacium.
PL becomes chi and seldom pi: chiù < plus; chiumme < plumbum; chiazze 
< plaetam; piwatte < *plattum; piace < placere.
STL becomes sk: scuppetta < stloppus.
VL becomes j: jasque < vlascum.


Groups ending in r

Remain: brutte, croce, crai, fronte, prigà, scrive, trave.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               799


qu, cu

1. Qu generally remains: quannu < quando; quatte < quattuor; quarera < 
querelam; quarche < qualis quam.
2. It gives č in ciunque < qui unquam; cerza < querceam.

3. Cu becomes qu: quiste, quidde, qua.


Groups beginning with s or x becoming initial
XB becomes sb: sbranà < *ex branare; sbatte < *ex-
SC, XC becomes sk before a, o, u: scola < scholam; scutedda < 
scutellam; scumminicà < excommunicare; scangià < *excambiare.  Before 
e, i, they become š: scità < excitare; scieglie < exsolvere.
SD, XD give sd: sdegno < *disdignare; sdradicà < ex-
SF, XF give sf: sfacciate < *ex-faciatum; sfoco < ex focum.
SP remains: spisse < spissum; spranze < *sperantiam.
ST, XT give st: stà < stare; stedde < stellam; strazzà < extractiare.




1. In most cases intervocalic b becomes v: cuavadde, trave, sive, 
2. In a few learned words it remains: subito, debole, diebete.

800                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

3. It falls in facia, dicia, diaulo (Italian faceva, diceva, diavolo).
4. It becomes p in veppeta < bibitam.


E remains: tufe, cuofene, bufele.


1. Generally v remains: chiuove < clavum; nove, pavone.
2. It gives j in: voje < bovem.


1. In most cases p remains: vipere, pepe, capidde, lupe, sapone.
2. It gives v or w in: riceve < recipere; wescowe < episcopum; cuvierchie < cuperculum.


1. Generally d remains: accede, pede, ancudine, vide, radeca.
2. It becomes t in: umite < humidum; sciapite < *in-


T remains: fatique, discete, strumente, veppeta.


L remains: pilo, tele, cuannela, fele, mele.

M, N

M, N remain: sciume, fume, nome; puane, cuane, dimenica.


1. R remains: piro, cera, sere, core, fore.
2. Infinitives lose final re: vence, accede, move.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               801


S remains: mese, piase, frese, cirase.


1. Before a, o, u, c often gives qu: amique, fatique, miedique, 
2. It remains in: vico, dimenica, sicure, radeca, spica, frabicà.
3. In a few cases we find a g: fegate < ficatum; assugà < exsucare; 
prigà < precare.
4. Before e, i, it becomes č: riceve, vacile, tridice, dece, 


1. Before e, i, g becomes ğ or ğ ğ: riggine, siggille, 
2. It falls in: paise < pagensem; frie < frigere; quaremma < 
3. Before a, o, u, g generally remains: castigà, agoste < augustum; 
chiaga < plagam; augurie < augurium.
4. It gives v in: nivre < nigrum; fravole < It. fragola.
5. It falls in: riale < regalem.



BB remains: sabbate, gabbà.
BL gives ll in: sullieve < *sublevio; and gli in: neglia < nebulam.
BR remains: wuttobre < octobrem; frabicà < fabricare and freve < 
febrem show methathesis.
BY becomes ğ ğ: agge < habeo; ragge < *rabiam.
BT becomes tt: sotte < subtus.
FF remains: affenne < offendere, affaccià, affittà.
FFL gives cchi in: acchià < afflare.

802                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

FR, FFR remain: soffrì < *suffrire.
VV gives bb: abbilì < It. avvilire; ebbiva < It. evviva.
VY gives ğğ: caggiola < ceveola.
PP remains: cuappiede, stoppe, cappotte.
PY gives čč: acce < apium; piccione < pipionem; suacce < 
PL, PPL give cchi: cocchia < cupulam; ristocce < *re-
stipula; but ppi in duppie < duplum.
PR, PPR remain: proprio, aprì; it gives bbr in lebbre < leporem; it 
shows methathesis in crapa < capram; the r falls in sopa < supra.
PS gives š in cascia < capsam; ss in stesso < *iste-ipsum.
PT gives tt: sette, accattà, scritte.
DD remains: adduce, addormì.
DR gives tr in piddietro < *poledrum.
DY gives š in: osce < hodie; ausce < gaudium; ğğ in appoggià 
< *appodiare; ff in abbaffà < *ad-badiare; it remains in odio; zz in 
ruzze < *rudium.
TT remains: mitte, piwatte.
TR remains: patrone, utre, lettre; r drops in quatte < quattuor; 
drete, prete show methathesis.
TY becomes zz or zi: chiazze < plateam; puzze < puteum; prezze < 
pretium; negozio < negotium; cunsulazione < consolationem.
TC gives ğğ: dammagge < damnaticum.
TL gives ll: spalle < spatulam.
LL generally gives dd: cuavadde, capidde, idde, stedde, quidde; in a 
few cases the ll remains: sollione, allegre, ballà.
LC becomes rc or rqu: carcagne < calcaneum; surque < sulcum; cuorcà < 
collocare; it remains in balcone; the l falls in duce < dulcem.
LD remains in suldate, solde; the l becomes u in caudare, caude.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               803

LY gives gli: figlie, migliere, foglie, pariglia, piglià.
LG before e gives gli: sceglie < *ex-eligere;  coglie < colligere.
LM remains: salma.
LP remains in vulpe < vulpem; it becomes rp in tarpunare < talpa.
LF remains in sulfe; it becomes rf in surfariedde.
LS gives uz: puzo < pulsum; sauzizze < It. salsiccia.
LT gives ut in aute < altum; aute < alter; autare < al-
tarum; the l falls in vutà < It. voltare; vota < *voltam.
LV remains: polve, salviette, salvenne (Italian polvere, salvietta, 
MM remains: scumminicà, mamma.
MB becomes mm: gamma < cambam; tammurre, vammace; it remains in 
MBY gives ngi: cangià < *excambiare.
MY gives gn: scigne < simia; vinnegna < vindemiam.
MP remains in cumpagne < *companio; zampogne < symphoniam; tiempe < 
tempus; campagne < campaneam.
MPL gives ngh: anghì < implere.
MPTY gives nz: scunzà < *excomptiare.
MN gives mm or nn: dammagge, suonno; gn in ogne < omne.
NN remains: cannite, penne.
NC before a, o, u, either remains or gives nqu: ancudine, janque < 
blank; sciunque < juncum.
NC before e, i, gives nč or nz: vilanze < bilancem; ancina < 
uncinum; vence < vincere.
NCY gives nz: onze < *unciam.
NCL gives nchi in carvunchie < carbunculum; and gn in gnostre < 
NCT gives nt: sante< sanctum.
ND becomes nn: quannu, stinnarde, appenne, cuanniliere.

 804                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO   

NDY gives gn: vregogne < verecundiam.
NFL gives ff in gruffulà < *runflare.
NG before e, i becomes nğ chiange < plangere; nginucchià < 
NG before a, o, u remains: sangue, luonghe, lenga.
NGL gives gn: ogne < ungulam.
NY becomes gn: castagne < castaneam; rugna < *roneam; vigna < vineam..
NS gives nz in zanzale < censualem; nzonga < It. sugna; more often the 
n falls; scipite < insipidus; paise < pagensem; frese < forensem.
NT remains: vinte, gente, diente, lenticchie, fronte.
NTR gives nt in jinte < de-intro; it remains in cintredde, cantre.
NTY gives nz: canzone, linzule, accumenzà.
RR remains: terre, fierre, arrivà.
RB gives rv: varviere, cuorve, survizio.
RC before a, o, u, gives rk: puorche, uorche.
RC before e, i gives rč: sorce, carcere.
RCL becomes rchi: cuvierchie, circhie < circulum.
RD remains: verde, perde, surde.
RDY gives rš: uorsce < hordeum; also z in veze < *viridiatam.
RG remains before a, o, u: purgatorio; it gives rğ before e, i; 
RM, RN, RP remain: verme, forma, vierne, juorne, cuorpe.
RS remains: vorse < *bursam; forse, vierso.
RT remains: sporta, uorte, fuorte, sorte.
RTY gives rz: scorza, terze.
RY gives r: ferrare, scinnare < *jenuarium.
SS remains: iesse, gruosse, russe, vessique; it gives also š: vasce < 
bassum; casce < cassam; abbasce < It. abbasso.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               805

SC before e, i gives š: cresce, fasce.
SP remains: vespe, niespole, risponne.
ST remains: pastore, battistero, inneste.   
STR remains: finestre, maestre, gnostre; also st: nuoste, vuoste.
SY gives s: vase < basium; cirase < *ceresiam.
CC before a, o, u remains: sicche, vocca, accoglie.
CC before e, i gives čč: accede, succede.
CL becomes cchi: aurecchie, becchie < *veculum; uocchie; rarely gli: 
tinaglie < tenaculum; cuniglie < cuniculum.
CR generally gives gr: sogra < soceram; agruno < acrem; allegre < 
*alecrum; it remains in lucrà < lucrare.
CS gives ss: lissia < *lixivam; tuossique, lassà, assì < exire.
CT gives tt: piette, liette, vinnette.
CY gives zz: azzare, trezza, sauzizze, vrazze; in a few cases it gives 
čč: crapicce, jacce < *glaciam.
GN loses the g: canosce < cognoscere; cainate < cognatum; aine < 
agnellum; but lignum gives levone.
GY gives š in curresce < corrigiam; g in riloge < horologium.
GR gives vr in nivre < nigrum.
Final consonants develop as in Italian.  Final s gives in 
monosyllables ie: nuie, vuie, craie; voje < bos; but chiù < plus.



1. Cases of Methathesis: frabicà < fabricare; freve < febrem; prete < 
petram; vernedie < veneris dies; vregogne < verecundiam; crapicce < 
*capricium; crape < capram; firnì < finire; priesque < persicum.

806                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

2. Noun. - Caput gives the feminine capa instead of capo as in 
Italian.  Vomerem gives gommera instead of the masculine;  also we 
find scherza instead of scherzo; la razione becomes masculine in the 
plural: li raziuni.  Likewise we find li pequore, li descete, li 
scinucchie for Italian le pecore, le dita, le ginocchia.  Some 
masculine nouns which become feminine in Italian remain masculine in 
this dialect: lu lebbre, lu fronte, lu carcere.
3. Comparison of Adjectives. - The comparative is formed with chiù < 
plus.  The comparative of inferiority with meno is not found.  
Migliore and peggiore have been replaced by the adverbs meglie < 
melius and pesce < *pejus.  Manquo is used for the Italian nemmeno.  
The superlative absolute in issimo is expressed by assai before the 
4. Personal Pronouns. - Subject pronouns: ie, tu, idde, iedde, nuie, 
vuie, lore.
Direct and indirect objects: mi, ti, lu, la, ci (or nci, nge), vi, li, 

Objects of prepositions: me, te, idde, iedde, nuie, vuie, lore.
5. Possessive Adjectives. - Mie, mia, tuve, tua, suve, suva, nuoste, 
vuoste, lore; pl. mie, meia, tuve, toia, suve, noste, voste, lore.
Possessive adjectives are always placed after the noun: tatta tua (tuo 
padre).  Frateme, sorema, mammeta for Italian mio fratello, mia 
sorella, tua madre.
The possessive pronouns are the same as the possessive adjectives, but 
they take the definite article.
6. Demonstrative Adjectives. - Quiste (rarely stu), chesta (rarely 
sta); pl. quisti, cheste, quidde, chedda; pl. quidde, chedde.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               807

Demontrative pronouns are the same as the demonstrative adjectives 
excluding stu and sta.
7. Definite Article. - Lu, la, li, le.  After the preposition a, the l 
often becomes r.
Indefinite article: nu, na.
8. Numerals. - Une, duji, tre, quatte, cinc, seje, sette, otte, nove, 
dece, unnici, dudidi, tridice, quattuordici, quinnici, sidice, 
dicisette, diciotte, dicinnove, vinte.
9. The Italian relative pronoun che as well as the conjunction che 
become ca in this dialect.
10. The Italian interrogatives chi and che become ci and ce; ci iè? 
(Italian che è?).
11. Verb. - The future is seldom found; when used it denotes 
probability.  Futurity is expressed by the present indicative of the 
verb to have and the infinitive of the verb in question.  The present 
subjunctive is not found except in stereotyped phrases like nun sia 
mai!  The infinitive loses its ending but no ne is added.  The 
pluperfect subjunctive often replaces the imperfect subjunctive.  Agge 
< habeo when followed by an infinitive becomes aggia.
(a) First conjugation in à: parlà, parlanne, parlate.
Present Indicative: parle, parle, parle, parlame, parlate, parlene.
Imperfect Indicative: parlave, parlave, parlave, parlàvame, parlàvate, 
Preterite: parlai, parliste, parlavo, parlemme, parliste, parlarene.
Conditional: parlarrie, parlarrisse, parlarrie, parlarriemme, 
parlarriste, parlarriene.
Imperfect Subjunctive: parlasse, parlasse, parlasse, parlassime, 
parlassive, parlassene.

808                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Imperative: parle, parlate.
(b) Second conjugation in è or 'e: crede, credenne, cridute.
Present Indicative; crewe, crenzi, crewe, cridime, cridite, credene.
Imperfect Indicative: cridie, cridivi, cridie, cridíeme, cridiévete,
Preterite: cridietti, cridisti, cridive, cridiemme, cridieste, 
Conditional: criderrie, cridirristi, criderrie, cridirriemme, 
cridierrissive, cridirrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: cridesse, cridiessi, cridesse, cridesseme, 
cridiessive, cridessere.
Imperative: cride, cridite.
(c) Third conjugation in ì: sintì, sintenne, sintute.
Present Indicative: sente, siente, sente, sintime, sintite, sentene.
Imperfect Indicative: sintie, sintive, sintie, sintíeme, sintiévite, 
Preterite: sintivi, sintiste, sintive, sintiemme, sintiéstere, 
Conditional: sintarrie, sintarrissi, sintarrie, sintarriemme, 
sintarrissive, sintarrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: sintesse, sintisse, sintesse, sintessime, 
sintissive, sintessere.
Imperative: siente, sintite.
The present indicative of firnì is: firnisquo, firnisci, firnisce, 
firnime, firnite, firniscene.  The other tenses follow sintì.
(d) Stà, stanne, state.
Present Indicative: stawe, stai, staje, stame, state, stanne.
Imperfect Indicative: stave, stave, stave, stávame, stávate, stavane.
                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               809

Preterite: stietti, stisti, stette, stemme, stiste, stezere.
Conditional: starrie, starrissi, starrie, starriemme, starresseve, 
Imperfect Subjunctive: stesse, stisse, stesse, stessime, stesteve, 
Imperative (the reflexive is used): statti, statevi.
(e) Dà, danne, date.
Present Indicative: dave, dai, daje, dame, date, danne.
Imperfect Indicative: dave, dave, dave, dàvame, dàvate, davane.
Preterite: diette, diste, dette, demme, disteve, dezere.
Conditional: darrie, darrissi, darrie, darriemme, darrissive, 
Imperfect Subjunctive: desse, disse, desse, dassime, dasteve, dassere.
Imperative: dà, date.
(f) Scì, scenne, sciute or giute (Italian andare).
Present Indicative: vawe, vai, vaje, sciame, sciate, vanne.
Imperfect Indicative: scia, scivi, scia, scíame, scívete, scienne.

Preterite: scive, sciste, scette, scemme, scisteve, scerene.
Conditional: sciarrie, sciarrisse, scarrie, sciarriemme, sciarriste, sciarrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: scesse, scisse, scesse, scesseme, sciste, 
Imperative: va, sciate.
(g) Fà, facenne, fatte.
Present Indicative: fazze, face, face, facime, facite, facene.
Imperfect Indicative: facia, facivi, facia, facienne, faciévete, 

810                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Preterite: fice, faciste, fece, faciemme, facisteve, fecere.
Conditional: farrie, farisse, farrie, farriemme, farrisseve, 
Imperfect Subjunctive: facesse, facisse, facesse, facessime, 
facisteve, facessere.
Imperative: fa, facite.
(h) Sapè, sapenne, sapute.
Present Indicative: suacce, suai, sape, sapime, sapite, sapine.
Imperfect Indicative: sapia, sapive, sapia, sapíeme, sapiévete, 
Preterite: sapiette, sapiste, sapive, sapemme, sapisteve, saperene.
Conditional: saperrie, saperrisse, saperrie, saperriemme, saperriesseve, saperrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: sapesse, sapisse, sapesse, sapessime, sapisteve, sapessere.
Imperative: sai, sapite.
(i) Volè, volenne, vulute or bulute.
Present Indicative: voglie, vuo', vo', vulime, vulite, volene.
Imperfect Indicative: vulia, vulivi, vulia, vuliéveme, vuliévete, 
Preterite: vuzi, vuliste, voze,vulemme, vulisteve, vozere.
Conditional: vulerrie, vulerrisse, vulerrie, vulerriemme, 

vulerrisseve, vulerrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: vulesse, vulisse, vulesse, vulessime, 
vulisteve, vulessere.
(k) Potè, putenne, putute.
Present Indicative: pozze, puoje, pote, putime, putite, potene.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               811

Imperfect Indicative: putie, putive, putie, putíeme, putiévete, 
Preterite: putiette, putiste, putette, putemme, putisteve, puterene.
Conditional: putrie, putrisse, putrie, putriemme, putrisseve, 
Imperfect Subjunctive: putesse, putisse, putesse, putessime, 
putissive, putessere.
(l) Iesse, essenne, state.
Present indicative: so, si, iè, sime, site, so.
Imperfect Indicative: iere, ire, iere, ierme, jírvete, ierene.
Preterite: It is replaced by the preterite of scì (andare).
Conditional: sarrie, sarrissi, sarrie, sarriemme, sarriessive, 
Imperfect Subjunctive: fusse, fuste, fosse, fossime, fusteve, fossere.
Imperative: si, site.
(m) Avè, avenne, avute.
Present Indicative: agge, aie, ave, avime, avite, anne.
Imperfect Indicative: avia, avive, avia, avíeme, avívete, aviene.
Preterite: ebbe, aviste, ebbe, aviemme, aviste, ebbere.
Conditional: avrie, avrisse, avrie, avriemme, avriesseve, avrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: avesse, avissi, avesse, avesseme, avisteve, 
Imperative: aie, avite.
(n) Vedè, videnne, vidute.
Present Indicative: vewe, vide, vede, vidime, vidite, vedene.

812                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Imperfect Indicative: vidie, vidive, vidie, vidíeme, vidiévete, 
Preterite: vidde, vidiste, vedde, videmme, vidisteve, viderene.
Conditional: vidarrie, vidarrissi, vidarrie, vidarriemme, 
vidarriesteve, vidarrienne.
Imperfect Subjunctive: videsse, vidisse, videsse, videssime, 
vidisteve, videssere.
Imperative: vide, vidite.
(o) Dece, dicenne, ditte.
Present Indicative: diquo, dice, dice, dicime, dicite, dicene.
Imperfect Indicative: dicia, dicivi, dicia, dicíeme, diciévete, 
Preterite: disse, diciste, dicive, dicemme, dicisteve, dicerene.
Conditional: dicirria, dicirrisse, dicirria, dicirriemme, 
dicirrissive, dicirriene.
Imperfect Subjunctive: dicesse, dicissi, dicesse, dicessime, 
dicisteve, dicessere.
Imperfect: di, dicite.




Ierano le nuvole a pecuredde,
Lu sole annammarate ne scaffava,
La terre com'a lu fumiere modde,
La vaccaredda frasche se rumava.
     E nuie sedute a re prete toste,
     Wardanne le crapecedde noste.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               813

Pe mienza a curnale
E scannapuddece,
Ndo le macchie se pascienne
Pover' animale.
     Nu cagnuliedde tengo ca iè fedele,
     Se meritarrie lu zucchere e lu mele.

Ma ce putie fà?
Se mette a abbaffà,
E come vutame l'uocchie
Eccute nu lupo mberucite
     Ca s'è menato ndo lu ruocchie,
     Tanto lu currivo e l'appetite.

Avess' avute na scuppettedde,
Le facia subito la pedde.
Mo nge vo' lu permesso d'arma
Pe sparà lu lupo ndo la manra.
     E ie restaie com'a quidde c'a bippite,
     Senza di civiedde ca iera proibbite.

Cu l'angina mmane
Me chiame l'ate crape
Chiane chiane,
E la vaccaredda sape

La via e se ne vene.
     A ra pagliara tutte ne trasime,
     E lu cuane abbaffa ancora
     E iè rimaso addafora,
     Ca na crapa mancante nuie vedime.


Quannu lu pastore vaie a sente messa,
Vede l'acquasentera: - ce bella scutedda a mangià latte!

814                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Vede lu battistere: - ce belle papaglione a tenè robba!
Vede li femine nginucchiate: - ce bella morra di pequore figliate!
Vede lu confissiunile: - ce belle pagliare pi quannu chiove!
Vede l'autare maggiore: - ce bella chianca a pisà sale!
Vede lu core: - ce belle mungiature a duje vadi!
Vede la sacristia: - ce belle casutaro nge vinerria!

Vede lu campanaro: - ce bell' ammagnone ca sarrie!


     Quannu lu pastore vaje'n Puglia,
     Lassa na cinc rana a ra migliera:
     - Migliera mia accattati lu puane,
     Lu rimanente ti cuompri la luane.
     Te fai na suttana a sette panni,
     Quannu venguo ie te trove na muntagna.
     - Marito mie ti puozzi necà,
     Ce puane e luane aggia accattà pe cinc rana?


          Tu nu buo' dece quanta si filone,
          La gente ca ti sape ti canosce.
          E sape pure quanta so minghione,
          Ca ie nu diquo a mente-cuncta-posce.
          Potesse confessà lu peccatone
          Ca mi pesa a re carne meia flosce,
          Forse ca pure Dio darria perdone
          A ci nnanti l'uocchi ave le catosce.


Maritimi iè pastore,
Si ni vene ogne doie sere
E si mette mussu a mussu

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               815

Cu li tizzuni.
-Marite mie, vatti corche,
T'agge misi li janchi linzule!
-Migliera mia, come mi voglia corche?
Ie agge rimasi li pequore sole.
Oh Dio, quant'è mprono lu pastore!
Pensa chiù li pequore di la migliera.
Amprone pastore, manquo a lu liette ti suai cuorcà,

Manquo la cammisa suai di ti luvà.


     Lu pastore a ra capanne
     Si face lu cunto cu la penne,
     L'aine ninnu cu quidde granne,
     Ca diaulo aggia venne?


     Nge vurrie nu catacuosto,
     Nge vurrie na. migliera,
     Na migliera nge vurrie
     Pe mangià ndo na piattedda,
     Tutt'e duie 'n armonia.

     Ie me sewo tuosto tuosto,
     Iedde com'a na quarera,
     O ca se si la pigliarrie
     Lu diaulo sta wagnedda
     Ie starrie 'n allegria.


Bedde figliole nu sciate chiù a leune,

Ciafarielle s'è date ncampagna:
La scoppetta caricata d'atregna,
Bedde figliole nu sciate chiù a leune.

816                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO


A.-Buongiorno cummara, come ti la passe?
B. E ce bo' iesse. cummara mia, ne ncielo e manquo nterre, ce ti pozze 
parlà, nu pozze fa lu sfoco mie.  Iè quidde dulore ca m'accede chiano 
chiano, e nu mi passe; mi potene adaccià a picca a picca, ie pozze 
murì e quidde dulore iè sempe vive e mi daie pen' amare.  Pover 'a me.  
Meglio ca nunge fosse maie venuta a ru munno.
A.-Be, nge vo' la pacienza, bene mia; tu lu suai ca senza la pacienza 
a nudda si pruvvene.  E Gesu Cresto e la Madonna t'anne saudì e aiutà 
chiano chiano e t'anne dà quedde cunsulazione c'aspiette.  Le grazie 
nu benene tutte na vota, e certe vote venene quannu nunne lu credime.
B.-O ca ti pozza sereve l'angelo mmocca e ca l'anime de lu Purgatorio 
preghessene sempe pe te, cummara mia, te l'aggia dece proprio, ogne 
vota ca ti vewo tu mi daie nu sullievo; e come te lu pozze renne iene: 
te lu renne Dio, quant' aiuto mi daie a me ca stawe ndo le pene amare, 
ndo nu fuoque ardente; tu sola anguna vota ca trase e mi puorte mo la 
cestaredde de fiche e mo lu panariedde de pere, e mo n'ata cosa e mi 
dice quedde bedde parulecchie, tu sullieve ogne bota n'anema da lu 
mbierne, e Dio, ca Dio ng'è, e pe fede nun si perde maie, Dio t'ave 
pruvvisto de lu bene e ti pozza sempe pruvvede.
A.-Ie lu suacce ca mi vuo' bene e quannu iesquo da la casa mia nummene 
pozze passà a aggia trasì a vedè come te la passe e ce face.  Ie 
t'agge sempe purtate ammore e sempe tenne porte, e se Dio vole, tu aie 
sta chiù cuntente e chiù meglie de me.  Be, ie menne vawe e tu nun 
t'annammarà; statt' allegra, suai come

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               817

dicie na femine: pezzient' allegre peduccie a branche.
B.-Ca proprio, we, puozze sta bona: pezzien' allegre, Dio l'aiute.
A.-Hu, e accussì ti voglie.  Sapissi quanta n'agge passate ie: e tu 
pure aie piglià lu curagge come na briganda e ie suacce ca nun t'ave 
mancà.  Statte bona, cummara mia, ie menne vawe fora, la vi la 
zapparedde.  Si dece: la fatica leva l'omene da lu vizio.  Ie fazze 
pure l'omene quannu nge vo'.  Nun mi chiamà saccente.
B.-Quesse cose, la lenguzze mia, nun sia maie!  Pigliame lu munnu come 
vene e facime la vuluntade di Dio.
A.-Nun ti fa male patì.



Words which differ most from modern Italian.

Abbafà <*ad-babare; Neap. ab-              maccare carne o pestare

     bafare; It. bava, trafelare.                   lardo.
Abbaffà <*ad-badiare; abbaiare.        Addafora, fuori.
Abbilà < It. bile; inquietare.                 Addonà < *adunare, Neap. addo-
Abbuscà, buscare.                                  nare; andare a vedere.
Accattà, Neap. accattare; com-          Adersce < *ad-directiare, drizzare,
     perare.                                                sollevare.

Accede, uccidere.                               Agruno, Neap. agrumma (limo-
Acchià < afflare, Neap. asciare;              ni, cedri, etc.); It. agrume;
     trovare.                                               amaro.
Acchiantate < ad-plantare, sedu-        Aguanne, Neap. aguanno; quest'
     to.                                                        anno.
Accio, sedano.                                    Allifà < allevare, Neap. allifare;
Accrianzate, Neap. accrianzato;              azzimare.
     costumato.                                     Alluccà < ad-loqui, Neap. alluc-
Accussì, così.                                           care; gridare.
Accuvià < *ad-cubare, nascondere.    Ammagnone, spauracchio.
Asquasentera, found also in Ne-         Ammoccià, Neap.  ammucciare
     apolitan, fonte battesimale.                  (tacere di mala voglia); na-
Addaccià, Neap. addacciare; am-             scondere.

818                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Amprone, balordo.                              Catosce, lucciola.
Anginaglie, anguinaia.                        Catuosce < *cata-ostium, pian
Anguna, alcuna.                                       terreno.
Annammarà, It.  inamarire (ob-           Ce, che (interrogative and ex-
     solete), intristire.                                  clamative).
Appannà, It. appannare (offu-             Cerme, It. cerme (obsolete)
     scare); socchiudere.                            means tutto il capo; here it
Appaurà, Neap. appaurare; im-                means cornicione.
     paurire.                                          Chianca, in Neap. it means bec-
Apprettà, Neap.  apprettare;                    cheria; here it means lastra.
     querelarsi.                                      Chiascione < jacere, lenzuolo.
Appilà, Neap. appilare; tappare.         Ci, chi (interrogative).
Arranchelenude, totalmente po-         Ciarlasane, it is said of a per-
     vero e ignudo.                                     son who stands always erect
Asche < *asclam, also in Neap.,              and is unable to move freely.
     scheggia.                                       Cimica < cyma, testa, cervello.
Ate, altro.                                            Cince, focaccia.

Atteveglie, pipistrello.                         Cingula, in Neap. it means fron-
Ca, in Neap. it means per-                      zolo; here it means ramo.
     ciocchè; here perciocchè and        Ciuccio, ciuco, asino.
     also che, both relative pro-             Civiedde < civis in illo; nessuno,

     noun and conjunction.                         niente.
Cacaglie, Neap. cacaglio; scilin-         Craie < cras, domani.
     guato.                                             Crewe, io credo.
Cacciafumo, cammino.                       Criduzze criduzze, lungo la spina
Calanca, in Italian it means                      dorsale.
     seno di mare; here it means           Crogne, conchiglia.
     frana.                                              Cuccemunnedda, Neap. coccia-
Camastra, catena per il focolare.              vannella; cutrettola.
Campescia, un tratto di terreno           Cuffiature, vaso di legno.
     per pascolo.                                    Cunsuprine, cugino in secondo
Cancariata, Neap.  cancareata;                grado.
     paternale.                                      Cuosto, fianco.
Cannarute, Neap. cannaruto;             Curnale, corniolo.
     goloso.                                           Cuttinera < cutem negram, gon-
Capisciole, Neap.  capesciola;                 na.
     nastro.                                            Dece, dire.
Carosa, il luogo dove si tosano           Devacà < de vacare, Neap.  deva-
     le pecore.                                             care; vuotare.
Carosielle, Neap.  carosiello; sal-       Diquo, io dico.
     vadanaio.                                       Driviglià < *de revigilare, sve-
Casorà, Neap. carosare; tosare.               gliare.
Casutaro, deposito di cacio.               Farinazze, farinata, polenta.
Catacuoste < *cata-costam, com-      Fascetedde, Neap.  fascetillo;
     pagno.                                                fascetto di legna.

                          STUDIES IN THE DIALECT OF BASILICATA               819

Filone, It. fellone; here, min-          Mbarà, imparare.
     chione.                                      Mberucite, inferocito.
Frese, It. forese (contadino);         Mbierno, inferno.
     here, contadino impiegato a     Mbortà, importare.
     anno.                                         Mbriache, ubbriaco.
Fricena, Neap. frecola; minuz-       Melope, Neap. nveloppa; busta.
     zolo.                                          Mente-cuncta-posce < mente-cunc-
Fucazza, focaccia.                              tat-poscere; perdonami.
Fumiere, It. fumiere means            Merque, Neap. merca; segno.
     l’acido del letame; here, le-       Mesaruolo, mesaiolo, che lavora
     tame.                                              a mese.
Garamedda, It. caramella; here,    Mienza, in mezzo.

     midolla.                                      Miere, vino.
Gazale, mascella.                           Migliera, moglie.
Ghianà < *planare; Neap.  nchia-   Modde, molle.
     nare; salire.                                    Morra, Neap. mmorra; folla.
Ghette, treccia.                                   Mpunteddà, puntellare.
Gruffulà, It. gruffolare (mangia-          Mungiaturo, il luogo dove si
     re in modo indecente come i               munge.
     porci; a more archaic mean-          Murgia < *muricem; rupe.
     ing is grugnire); here, rus-              Musce, moscio, lento.
     sare.                                               Muzzico, morso.
Gualane, Neap. gualano (gar-            Naca, culla.
     zone di campagna); here co-         Ncincilonne < in coelo coelorum,
     lui che guarda animali vac-                 in alto.
     cini.                                                Ndo, dentro, nel.
Igli < ilia, fianchi.                                 Necà < necare, annegare.
Jaccà < flaccare; Neap. sciaccare;     Nfonne, Neap. nfonnere; ba-
     rompere la testa.                                 gnare.
Lammordo, di colore oscurro.             Nfute < infultum, folto.
Latuorno, Neap. taluorno; fa-              Ninnu, Neap. ninno; It. nini;
     stidio, seccatura.                                 vezzeggiativo dei bambini;
Lenguzza, lingua.                                     giovine.

Lotano < Lotium; It. letame; here,       Ntrace, It. antrace (obsolete);
     stagno.                                                carboncolo.
Leune, legna.                                      Ommole < amphoram, brocca.
Lupegna, di lupo.                                Pantaschi, fianchi.
Luvà, levare.                                       Papaglione, ripostiglio.
Manquo, nemmeno.                            Papusso, figura; perhaps con-
Manra, mandra.                                        nected with Neap. papuscio
Mara < mala hora; mara me!                    (pianella).
     povero me!                                     Pennelare, ciglio.
Masciare < *magare, fattucchie-         Pescera, peschiera, vivaio di
     ro.                                                        pesci.
Mauro, all’ecesso.                                Picca or pic, poco.

820                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO

Pigna, Neap., Pistojese ed altre              aura); here, cesta di legno.
     parti della Toscana; grap-              Stiavucche, salvietta.
     polo.                                               Stintine, Neap. stentino; budello.
Pischione, pietra grande.                    Stizze, goccia.
Pitrosine, Neap. petrosino; vari-         Suonno, tempia.
     ous obsolete Italian forms              Supala, siepe.
     are: petrosello, petrosellino,           Tanne, Neap. tanno; allora.
     petrosemole; prezzemolo.              Tatta, padre.
Poc, Neap. pocca; allora, poichè.       Tempe, rialto.
Presiente, regalo.                                Terza, di -------, ier l’altro.
Quarera, querela; hence, uggioso      Tizzone, tizzo.
Rampogna, in Italian it means            Tomo, lento.
     rimprovero; here, metafora.           Tonza, vasca.
Revetale, rovo.                                   Toste, f. pl. of tuosto, duro.
Rizzulo, orciuolo.                                Trasì, entrare.
Rommole, sasso.                                Uffile, Neap. uffa; anca.
Rumà, It. rumare (obsolete), ru-         Uomele, morbido.
     minare.                                          Useme, Neap. uosemo; fiuto.
Rumate, letame.                                 Vade, guado, entrata.
Ruocchio, rocchio.                              Vantera, grembuile.
Sarcene, virgulto di legno.                  Vitranedde, vaiuolo.
Scannapoddice, rovo.                         Wagnedda, fanciulla.
Scarature, pettine.                              Wagnone, Neap. guaglione; fan-
Schitte, It. schietto; here, solo.                ciullo, giovanotto.
Sciummute, gobbo.                             Wulisce, Neap. golio; desiderio.
Scunzà, Neap. sconcecare; di-           Zagaredde, Neap. zagarella; na-
     sturbare, guastare.                              stro.
Sembe, sempre.                                 Zanche, zanna.
Serra, Neap. and archaic It.;               Zenca, Neap. zenna; poco.
     sega.                                              Zilona, tartaruga.
Spranzone, vagabondo.                     Zoca, fune.
Stare, Neap. staro (antica mi-

   Italian povero mi! is expressed in various ways: travaglie mie 
(Corleto); sciglie mie (Laurenzana); scante mie (Montemurro); 
trimintone mia (Guardia); tasse nui (Viggiano).
   Un morso di pane becomes: nu murso di puane; nu muzzico di puane; 
na zenca di puane; nu vuccone di puanne.
   Nu rusce e nu musce, Italian non è buono a nulla.
   Ausce di chiazza e trivole di casa, Italian gioia di piazza e 
tribolo di casa.

   La catena di lu cuodde, Italian la nuca.
   La tabacchera di lu scinucchie, Italian la rotella del ginocchio.
   Lu pesce di la gamma, Italian polpaccio.
   La chianta di la mano, Italian la palma della mano.

                                         ALFONSO DE SALVIO.


The people of Basilicata are called Lucanians since their region used 
to be called Lucania in Roman times.  

Italo Talia wrote about their language: "The same Basilicata dialects 
distinguish themselves from those of Campania and Puglia by a more 
accentuated conservation of archaic residues: in the Potenza
territory the long Norman, Swabian and Angevin dominations, have
barely grazed the Latin lexical patrimony, and in the Matera 
territory the Greek-classical heritage is more evident than the 
Byzantine (Talia, 1976, p. 146). 

Below are some Lucanian words I found from various internet sources:

Lucano	        Italiano	English         Fonte/Source
------          --------        -------         ------------
a la	        alla	        to the
abbasce         abbasso         down (with)     "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
abbilì          avvilire        to discourage   "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio    
accatta'	comprare	to buy
accede          uccidere        to kill         "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
accessì	        così	        thus, so
accio	        sedano	        celery
adda	        gallo	        rooster
addi'na	        gallina	        hen   
addo'nga	allungare	to extend
addu'ce	        galletto	cockerel
agli	        aglio	        garlic
aine	        agnello	        lamb  
alice	        acciuga	        anchovy
amme'sca	mescolare	to mix
ammudda'	ammollare	to soften
ammunna'	sbucciare	to peel
ani'edde	anello	        ring  
arracarsi	trascinarsi	drag, pull
arravuoglia'nne	ravvolgere	to wind
arreffredda'	raffreddare	cooling
arrusula'	rosolare	brown 
asceni	        chicchi	        grains
asciutta'	asciugare	to dry
assaie	        abbondante	abundant
aulive	        oliva	        olive 
bacce	        vacche	        cows  
bastonciedde	bastoncini	canes 
bracciale	bracciante	workman, laborer
brascioledde	involtini	bundle
brore	        brodo	        broth  
bucchiere	bicchiere	glass 
buoglie	        bollire	        to boil
buoie	        bue	        ox    
ca	        che	        that  
cajnata	        cognata	        known 
cannele         candele         candles
capa	        testa	        head  
carn            carne           meat  
carosa	        tosatura	shearing, clipping
casce	        formaggio	cheese
casorà          tosare          to shear/to clip "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
castidd	        castello	castle
cavra	        calda	        warm  
cavra-cavra	caldissima	hot   
cchiù	        più	        more  
cerasu	        ciliegio	cherry tree
cevodda	        cipolla	        onion 
chiane	        piano	        slowly
chiang	        macelleria	butcher shop
chianghèr	macellaio	butcher  
chiatrare	gelare	        to freeze
chiazz	        piazza	        plaza, square
chien	        pieno	        full  
chiove          piove           rain  
ciammotta	verdure fritte	fried vegetables
ciampa	        zampa	        paw   
cifaricchio	peperoncino	chili 
cignato	        inaugurato	inaugurated
ciota, ciuota	sciocca	silly,  foolish
cirasedda	peperoncino	chili pepper    both &
ciuccio	        asino	        ass, donkey
ciucculata	cioccolata	chocolate
cocozza	        zucca	        pumpkin
congiare	condire	        season
coppola	        berretto	cap, beret
corie	        cotiche	        pigskins
crai/craie      domani	        tomorrow
craj	        ieri	        yesterday - I think this is incorrect
creature	bambini	        babies
crocco	        forchettone	big fork
crure	        crudo	        raw   
cu	        con	        with  
cuane           cane            dog             "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
cuanniliere     candeliere      candle stick    "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
cucchiare	cucchiaio	spoon 
cucuzziedde	zucchina	Italian squash
cunc	        maccheroni	spaghetti
cungia	        condire	        season
cunserva	concentrato di pomodoro	assembled of tomato
cuo'gliere	cogliere	gather
cuosce	        cuocere	        cook  
curreshia	cinghia	        belt  
curtiedd	coltello	knife ;
curu	        quel	        that  
cuverchie	coperchio	cook  
d	        di	        of    
d l'	        dell'	        of the
d lu	        del	        of the (masculine singular)
da la	        dalla	        from the
damm            portati         carry (2nd person singular)
dann	        errore	        crime, error?
darde	        lardo	        lard  
diaulo          diavolo         devil           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
diavulicchi	peperoncino rosso	red peperoncino
dieva'	        togliere	to remove
dimenica        domenica        Sunday          "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
doie	        due	        two   
donghi	        lunghi	        long  
d'u	        del 	        of the (masculine singular)
duce            dolce           sweet           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
ebbiva          evviva          long live...    "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
faceme	        facciamo	we make, we do
fagliare	sbagliare	to make a mistake
fasuli	        fagioli	        beans 
fasuline	fagiolini	string beans
fazz	        faccio	        I make, I do
fedda	        fetta	        slice 
fe'ghete	fegato	        liver 
fenz	        recinzione	fence 
fiche	        fichi	        fig trees
fierre          ferro           iron            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
fonge	        funghi	        mushrooms
forcina	        forchetta	fork  
frà	        fratello	brother
fraate	        fratello	brother
fravole         fragola         strawberry      "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
freve	        febbre	        fever  & "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
frittil'	ciccioli	fried scraps of pork fat
fronna	        foglia	        leaf  
fuo-o	        fuoco	        fire  
galiota	        galeotto	galley slave, convict
gn'è	        c'è	        it is 
iazz	        recinto	        railing
ie	        io  	        I     
ie so	        io sono	        I am   
ind li	        nei 	        in the (masculine plural)
ind u	        nella	        in the (feminine singular)
iurne, iurn	giorno	        day   
iss             lui             him   
la 	        la 	        the (feminine singular)
laneatur	matterello	rolling pin
Lavidd          Lavello         city in Basilicata
lenguzza        lingua          tongue, language "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
li, i 	        i 	        the (masculine plural)
lione           leone           lion            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
luoque          luogo           place           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
lurd	        sporchi	        dirty 
macarun         maccheroni      macaroni
maccatur	fazzoletto	handkerchief
magna'	        mangiare	to eat
marruche	lumache	        snails
matena	        mattina	        morning
mazzetie'dde	mazzetti	small bundles
mbarà           imparare        to learn        "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
mbierno         inferno         hell            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
mbriache        ubbriaco        drunk           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
melope          busta           envelope        "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
menestra	minestra	soup  
menza	        meta'	        half  
miccole	        lenticchie	lentils
mièr	        vino	        wine  
migliera        moglie          wife            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
mo	        ora	        now   
morra           folla           crowd           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
mùmmule	        vaso, orcio	vase, jug, pitcher
muscate	        moscato	        muscat
muscrun	        funghi	        fungus
naca            culla           cradle          "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
n'auta          un'altra        another
'ndo            dove            where 
neglie          nebbia o neve   fog or snow
neglia	        nebbia	        fog   
ngasa	        in casa	        at home
nu	        uno	        one   
nuase           naso            nose            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
nzogna/nzonge   strutto/sugna   lard   & "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
osce            oggi            today  & "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
padde	        tuorli	        yolks 
pan             panne           bread 
pariedda	padella	        frying pan
paròcci	        bastone	        baguette
partù	        partito	        gone  
pecurine	pecorino	pecorino cheese
pedde           pelle           skin            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
petrisi'ne	prezzemolo	parsley
piccile	        piccolo	        small   
pillicci	cafoni	        boors, peasants
pilo            pelo            hair            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
pittare	        dipingere	paint, portray
pìzzeche	pugno	        fist  
prete	        pietra	        stone  & "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
putìa	        io potevo	I was able
quatteà	        quattro	        four  
ri	        le 	        the (feminine plural)
rùccòlo	        focaccia	tart, bun
sauzzize        salsiccia       sausage         "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio         
segge           sedia           chair 
sicrete         segreto         secret          "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
so nu	        sono	        there are
spuntone	angolo 	        corner
ste	        queste	        this (feminine plural)
sti	        questi	        this (masculine plural)
strumble	trottola	(spinning) top
sturt	        storti	        crooked
suangue         sangue          blood           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
sunn	        sonno	        sleep 
surde           sordo           deaf            "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
tavìute	        bara	        coffin
tele            tela            cloth           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
tesse           tessere         to weave        "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
tiretto	        cassetto	drawer
titt/titte      tetti	        roof-tops & "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
tuoppe	        altura	        height, high ground
tuorte          torto           wrong, fault    "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
u	        il	        the (masculine singular)
ucchie	        occhi	        eyes  
uind	        vente	        wind  
urt	        orto	        vegetable garden
vaddone	        vallate	        valleys
varwa           barba           beard           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
vasce           basso           low             "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
vence           vincere         to win          "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
venne           vendere         to sell         "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
vennerei        venerdì         Friday
vocca, vocc	bocca	        mouth  & "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
voria           boria           arrogance, conceit "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
vosco           bosco           woods           "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
vote	        giro	        I turn
vusk, vuschera	boschi	        woods 
vutà            voltare         to turn         "Studies in the Dialect of Basilicata" by Alfonso de Salvio
zacqualo	zotico	        rough, uncough
zi              zio             uncle 
zinne	        angolo, spigolo	corner
zizza	        mammella	breast, udder


History of Rionero in Vulture, Basilicata: (in English)
Language of Rionero in Vulture, Basilicata: (in Rionerese, Italian, & English)
Language of San Fele, Basilicata: (in Sanfelese, Italian, & English)
Some Sanfelesi families: genealogical research

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