E3b Notes

E3b used to be known as Hg21

Synopsis:
circa 25,400-22,300 BCE most recent common ancestor of E3b in East Africa
circa 9600 BCE E3b expands into the Near East
circa 5500-2000 BCE E3b expands into the Balkans with the Neolithic 
revolution or early during the Bronze Age

Notes:
We obtained an estimate of 25.6 thousand years (ky) (95% CI 24.3-
27.4 ky) for the TMRCA of the 509 haplogroup E3b chromosomes, which
is close to the 30 ± 6 ky estimate for the age of the M35 mutation
reported by Bosch et al. (2001) using a different method.  Several
observations point to eastern Africa as the homeland for haplogroup
E3b - that is, it had (1) the highest number of different E3b
clades..., (2) a high frequency of this haplogroup and a high
microsatellite diversity, and finally, (3) the exclusive presence of
the undifferentiated E3b* paragroup.  [Cruciani et al., 2004, p.1015]

The paragroup E-M35* has been observed at high frequencies in both 
eastern (10.5%) and southern (15.2% Africa, with rare occurrences in 
northern Africa and Europe (0.4% and 0.5% respectively)...Also, the 
extensive interpopulation E-35* microsatellite diversity...between 
Ethiopians and Khoisan indicates that eastern Africans and Khoisan 
have been separated for a considerable period of time, as has been 
suggested elsewhere (Scozzari et al., 1999; Cruciani et al. 2002; 
Semino et al. 2002).  [Cruciani et al., 2004, p.1020]

The E-M35* lineage shows its highest frequency (19.2%) in the 
Ethiopian Oromo...Indeed, it is also found at high frequency (16.7%) 
in the Khoisan of South Africa (Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et 
al. 2002) [Semino et al., 2004, p. 1025]

E3b "can be related to the spatial range of the Afroasiatic 
linguistic phylum" [Keita, 2005, p. 562]

     The distribution and high prevalence of haplotype V [E3b] (and 
less so, XI; in the Nile Valley primarily) and Afroasiatic speakers 
in Africa correspond with the geography of the Horn-supra-Saharan 
arc.  The spread of the language phylum and genes may illustrate the 
concept of kin-structured migration (Fix, 1999) with founder effect 
in some instances (e.g., high frequency in Moroccan Berbers). 
     In the Nile Valley, V [E3b] (and XI) may have been established 
with early Afroasiatic speakers, who reconstructed vocabulary on 
available evidence suggests that they were hunters and intensive 
plant users, not food producers (for a discussion of cultural 
reconstruction from language, see Ehret, 1984, 1988, 2000; Blench, 
1993; Ehret et al., 2004).  Interestingly this subsistence pattern 
characterizes a late Paleolithic site from Wadi Kubanniya in 
southern Egypt (Wetterstrom, 1993) and subsequent Epipaleolithic 
sites.  Early Afroasiatic speakers, along with those of Nilosaharan, 
were likely drawn into the early less arid Sahara.  
     A moister, more inhabitable eastern Sahara was colonized in the 
late Pleistocene-early Holocene, after a long near-absence of people 
associated with a long period of aridity...A dynamic diachronic 
interaction consisting of the fusion and fission of populations can 
easily be envisioned in the fluctuating environment of the Holocene 
Sahara, where oases can be conceptualized as a kind of refugia 
supporting populations that interacted intermittently... [Keita, 
2005, p.563-564]

It is noteworthy that the archaeological evidence indicates an 
occupation hiatus in the Egyptian Nile Valley between 10,000-6000 
BCE (Midant-Reynes, 2000) [Keita, 2005, p. 564]

The Egyptian valley was apparently abandoned for some reason between 
10,000-6,000 BCE; some peoples may have gone into the Sahara, and 
others into the Levant.  Perhaps at the beginning of this period, or 
near it (Bar-Yosef, 1987), marks when pre-Neolithic migrants with 
haplotype V [E3b] would have established pre-proto-Semitic in the 
Levant, who descendant Semitic became prominent via language shift 
in populations with VII and VIII; the later Common Semitic (CS) was 
spoken by an agricultural population (Diakonoff, 1998).  Early 
Amazigh speakers in the northern Sahara in this model would have 
gone west. [Keita, 2005, p.565]

"a Mesolithic population carrying Group III lineages with M35/M215 
mutation [E3b] expanded northwards from sub-Saharan to north Africa 
and the Levant" (Underhill et al., 2001, p. 55; see also Bosch et 
al., 2001; Bar-Yosef, 1987) [Keita, 2005, p. 562]

The M35/M215 sub-clade cluster of haplotypes fragments a lineage (Ht 
4) described previously (Hammer et al. 1997).  We suggest that a 
population with this sub-clade of the African YAP/M145/M203/PN2 
cluster expanded into the southern and eastern Mediterranean at the 
end of the Pleistocene...These lineages would have been introduced 
then from the Middle East into southern Europe (and to a lesser 
extent northern India and Pakistan) by farmers during the Neolithic 
expansion. [Underhill et al., 2001, p. 51]

The Pleistocene epoch on the geologic timescale is the period from 
1.8 million to 11,550 years BP [BP = before present (i.e. 1950)] 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleistocene]

...the diffusion of Neolithic farmers from the Near East between 
4,000 and 7,500 years ago (Semino et al. 2000)...Interestingly, M35+ 
chromosomes (E3b*; or their evolutionary precursors E* and E3*) were 
previously hypothesized to have migrated to Europe with farmers in 
the Neolithic (Hammer et al. 1997; Rosser et al. 2000; Semino et al. 
2000).  However, because M35* chromosomes are rare in Europe, we 
instead hypothesize that the derived lineage, E-M78 (E3b1), is the 
more likely haplogroup reflecting Neolithic demic diffusion.  [Behar 
et al., 2003, p. 362]

In Europe E3b is the third largest group after "R" and "I" 
haplogroups

Time-of-divergence estimates for E-M78δ chromosomes suggest a 
relatively greater antiquity (14.7 ± 2.7 ky) for the separation of 
eastern Africans from the other populations....demographic 
population expansions involving clusters α [E-M78] in Europe 
(TMRCA 7.8 ky; 95% CI 6.3-9.2 ky), β in northwestern Africa 
(5.2 ky; 95% CI 3.2-7.5 ky), and γ in eastern Africa (9.6 ky; 
95% CI 7.2-12.9 ky) should be considered the main contributors to 
the relatively high frequency of haplogroup E-M78 in the surveyed 
area. [Cruciani et al., 2004, pp. 1017-1018]

E3b originated in sub-Saharan Africa and expanded into the Near East 
and northern Africa at the end of the Pleistocene (Underhill et al. 
2001)  E3b lineages would have then been introduced from the Near 
East into southern Europe by immigrant farmers, during the Neolithic 
expansion (Hammer et al. 1998; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al., 
2001). [Cruciani et al., 2004, pp. 1014-1015]

E3b's expansion into the Southern Levant may be connected to the 
appearance of the Natufian Culture. [D'Agostino, 2006, p. 2]

...the clinal frequency distribution of E-M78α within Europe 
testifies to important dispersal(s), most likely Neolithic or post-
Neolithic.  These took place from the Balkans, where the highest 
frequencies are observed, in all directions, as far as Iberia to the 
west and, most likely, also to Turkey to the southeast. [Cruciani et 
al., 2004, p. 1018]

E3b1-M78 is the most common haplogroup E lineage in Europe (Cruciani 
et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004).  The spatial pattern...depicts a 
nonuniform E3b1 geographic distribution with a frequency peak 
centered in south Europe and SEE [South East Europe] (13%-16% in 
southern Italians and 17%-27% in the Balkans)  Declining frequencies 
are evident toward western (10% in northern and central Italians), 
central and eastern Europe (from 4% to 10% in Polish, Russians, 
mainland Croatians, Ukrainians, Hungarians, Herzegovinians, and 
Bosnians).  Noteworthy is a low E3b1 frequency (5%) in Turkey.  
Apart from its presence in Europe and the Middle East, E3b1 is also 
found in eastern and northern Africa.  Cruciani et al. (2004) 
estimated that E3b-M78 might have originated in eastern Africa about 
23.2 KYA (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.1-25.4)...Almost 93% of 
SEE E3b1 chromosomes are clasified into α cluster.  In Europe, 
the highest E3b1α variance is among Apulians, Greeks, and 
Macedonians, and the highest frequency of the cluster is among 
Albanians, Macedonians, and Greeks...Furthermore, it may be 
envisioned that the observed E3b1α frequency distribution in 
Anatolia might stem from a back migration originating in south 
Europe and SEE.  Our estimated range expansion of 7.3 ± 2.8 KYA (95% 
CI 6.3-9.2 KYA) estimate for expansions of cluster α 
chromosomes in Europe reported by Cruciani et al. (2004) and the 6.4 
KYA estimate for E3b1-M78 STR variance in Anatolia dated by 
Cinnioğlu et al. (2004).  The frequency  and variance decline 
of E3b1 in SEE is rather continuous..., with a frequency peak 
extending from the southeastern edge of the region and a variance 
peak in the southwest.  Observed high E3b1 frequency in Kosovar 
Albanians (46%) and Macedonian Romani (30%) represent a focal rather 
than a clinal phenomenon resulting most likely from genetic drift.  
E3b1 frequency and variance are significantly correlated with 
latitude, showing higher values toward the south...A lower frequency 
of E3b1 significantly distinguishes populations of the Adriatic-
Dinaric complex, i.e., mainland Croatians, Bosnians, and 
Herzegovinians (7.9%; 95% CI 0.054-0.114), from their neighboring 
populations of the Vardar-Morava-Danube river system, i.e., Serbians 
and Macedonians (21.9%; 95% CI 0.166-0.283).  These observations 
hint a mosaic of different E3b1 dispersal modes over a short 
geographic distance and point to the Vardar-Morava-Danube river 
system as one of major routes for E3b1, in fact E3b1α, 
expansion from south and southeastern to continental Europe.  In 
fact, dispersals of farmers throughout the Vardar-Morava-Danube 
catchments basin are also evidenced in the archaeological record 
(Tringham 2000).  [Peričic et al., 2005]



My Sources:

Behar D, Garrigan D, Kaplan M, Mobasher Z, Rosengarten D, Karafet T, 
Quintana-Murci L, Ostrer H, Skorecki K, Hammer M (2003).  
Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome variation in Ashkenazi Jewish 
and host non-Jewish European populations.  Hum Genet 114:354-365

Cruciani F, La Fratta R, Santolamazza P, Sellitto D, Pascone R, 
Moral P, Watson E, Guida V, Beraud Colomb E, Zaharova B, Lavinha J, 
Vona G, Aman R, Calì F, Akar N, Richards M, Torroni A, Novelletto A, 
Scozzari R (2004).  Phylogeographic Analysis of Haplogroup E3b (E-
M215) Y Chromosomes Reveals Multiple Migratory Events Within and Out 
of Africa.  Am. J. Hum. Genet. 74:1014-1022.

Keita SOY (2005).  History in the Interpretation of the Pattern of 
p49a,f Taql RFLP Y-Chromosome Variation in Egypt: A Consideration of 
Multiple Lines of Evidence.  American Journal of Human Biology 
17:559-567.

Peričic M, Barac Lauc L, Martinovic Klaric I, Rootsi S, 
Janicijevic B, Rudan I, Terzic R, Čolak I, Kvesic A, Popovic D, 
Šijački A, Behluli I, Đorđevic D, Efremovska L, Bajec 
Đ, Stefanovic B, Villems R, Rudan P (2005).  High-Resolution 
Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes 
of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations.  Oxford Journals.  
Vol. 22, Number 10, pp. 1964-1975.

Semino O, Magri C, Benuzzi G, Lin A, Al-Zahery N, Battaglia V, 
Maccioni L, Triantaphyllidis C, Shen P, Oefner P, Zhivotovsky L, 
King R, Torroni A, Cavalli-Sforza L, Underhill P, Santachiara-
Benerecetti A (2004).  Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-
Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of 
Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area.  Am. J. 
Hum. Genet. 74:1023-1034.

Underhill P, Passarino G, Lin A, Shen P, Mirazón Lahr M, Foley R, 
Oefner P, Cavalli-Sforza (2001).  The Phylogeography of Y chromosome 
binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations.


Frequencies of E3b

E3b (Hg21) in descending frequency order by percentages follows: 
Marrakesh Berbers 86.1%,
Borana (Kenya) 85.7%,
Moyen Atlas Berbers 81.1%,
Mozabite Berbers 80%,
Northern African 75-77%,
Somalis 73.9%,
Moroccan Arabs 70.4%,
Berbers (Morocco) 68.9%,
Ethiopian Woyayta 58.4%,
Morocco 57.8%,
Oromo (Ethiopia) 56%,
Ethiopian Amhara 55.8%, 
Supra-Saharan (composite) 55%,
Datog people of Tanzania 54-63%,
Algerian 52-56.7%,
Tunisia 51.3-53.4%,
Maasai people of Kenya 50%,
Mixed Ethipians 49.9%,
Peloponnese Greeks 47%,
Kosovar Albanians 45.6% [43.85% = E3b1-α],
Libya 44.7%,
Dead Sea area of Jordan 44.4%,
Mauretania 44%,
Pasiegos from Cantabria 42.9%,
Ethiopia 40.4-45.8%,
Palestinians in West Bank and Jerusalem 38.5%,
Lower Egypt 38.2%, 
Tanzania 37.2%,
Wairak people of Tanzania 37%
Egypt 36.1-39.4-40.4%,
Sandawe people of Tanzania 34%,
Falasha Jews 31.8%,
Albanians 31.6%,
Khwe people of South Africa 30.8%,
Macedonian Romani (Gypsy) 29.8%,
East Sicily 28.7%,
Nilo Saharan from Kenya 27.8%,
Greek 20.6-28% [20-30%],
NW Sicily 21.4%,
Cypriot 20-27%,
Macedonian Slav 24.1%,
Turkish Cypriots 23.9%,
Palestinians in Gaza 23.8%,
Bulgarian 21.6%, 
Rumanian 21.4%,
Sicily 21.3%, 
Serbians 20.4%,
Jewish men 20.3; 25; 30%,
Palestinian Arabs 20.3%, 
Bedouin 19%, 
Sephardic Jews 18.6-19%, 
Macedonian Greek 18.6%,
Ashkenazi Jews 18.2-23%,
Jordan 17.9%, 
Muslim Lebanese 17.9%,
Upper Egypt 17.6%,
Sudan (E-M78) 17.5%, 
Lower Nubia 17.4%,
Istanbul Turkish 17.2%,
Hungarian 17%, 
Lebanese 16.7; 19.2; 25.8; 29; 30%
SW Sicily 16.4%,
Christian Lebanese 16.3%,
Southern Portuguese 16.3%,
Oman 15.4%
Iran 14.5-20%,
Bedouin Arabs 14.3%,
Druze Arabs 14.3%,
Bantu from Kenya 14.3%,
Kenya 13.8%,
South Italy 13.8-26.5%,
Tuareg from Niger 13.6%,
Central Italy 13.4%, 
Asturias, Spain 13.3%,
Italian 13%, 
Palestinians in Galilee 13%,
Yugoslavian 13%, 
Southern African Bantu 12.5%,
Northern Italy 12%,
Kurdish Jews 12%, 
Erzurum Turkish 12%,
!Kung 10.9%,
Turkey 10.7%,
Sephardim from Turkey 10.6%, 
Northern Portuguese 10%, 
Belarussian 10%, 
Slovakian 10%, 
Spanish 10%, 
Turkish 10%, 
Central Anatolian 9.9%,
Malta 8.9%,
Oriental Jews 8.9%,
Sardinian 8.4%,
Southeastern Turkish 8.4%,
French 8.2%, 
Bavarian 8%, 
Czech 8%, 
Dutch 8%, 
Muslim Kurds 8%, 
Pakistani Baluch 8%,
Southwestern Turkish 7.5%,
Near Eastern Jews 7.4%, 
United Arab Emirates 7.3%,
Iraq 7.2-10.8%,
Syrian 7.2-10%,
Romanian 7%, 
Russian 7%, 
Slovenian 7%, 
Palestinians in central Lowlands 6.9%,
Corsicans 6.4%,
Southern Spaniards 6.4%,
French Basques 6.3%
Mandenka Senegalese 6.3%,
Chuvash 6%, 
Ossetian 6%, 
Pakistani Parsi 6%, 
Estonian 5.5%, 
Djerba Jews 5.3%,
Saudi Arabia 5%,
Azeris 4.2%,
Pakistani Makrani Baluch 4%, 
Ukranian 4%, 
Spanish Basques 3.6%,
Armenian 3%, 
East Anglian 3%, 
Pakistani Makrani Negroid 3%, 
Danish 2.9%, 
Polish 2.6%, 
Northeastern Turkish 2.4%,
Belgian 2%, 
Finnish 2%, 
Georgian 2%, 
Irish 2% [or 3-4%], 
Northern Swedish 2%, 
Norwegian 2%, 
Pakistani Pathan 2%, 
Pakistani Sindhi 2%, 
Pashtun 2%,
Western Scottish 2%
Pakistan 1.1-2.3%


Highest E3b1 á variance among Apulians, Greeks, and Macedonians
Highest frequency of the cluster is among Albanians, Macedonians, & Greeks


My STR values

My STRs:
numerical		Genographic		ysearch *
order			order			order	
19 = 13		        393 = 13		393 = 13	
385a = 16		19 = 13		        390 = 24
385b = 18		391 = 10		19 = 13
388 = 12		439 = 12		391 = 10
389-1 = 13		389-1 = 13		385a = 16
389-2 = 17		389-2 = 17		385b = 18
390 = 24		388 = 12		426 = 11
391 = 10		390 = 24		388 = 12
392 = 11		426 = 11		439 = 12
393 = 13		385a = 16		389-1 = 13
426 = 11		385b = 18		392 = 11
439 = 12		392 = 11		389-2 = 30 [389-1 + 389-2]


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